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GRE Argument 應試步驟

   Argument 應試步驟

 

Before Writing:

1.     閱讀文章,在草稿紙上寫出文章的三段論結構

premise前提】:               

event 事件】:

conclusion 推論】:

Ex:

Premise:

Arctic dears move from island to island searching for plants to eat.

They live in areas where warm enough for plants to grow.

While cold enough to frozen sea surface to allow them to migrate around islands.

Event:

   Local hunters reported population decline of dears

   Recent Global warming is causing the ice to melt. 

Conclusion:

  Global warming causes ice-melting, which breaks the bridges between islands. The destruction of migration pattern explains the decline of population of the dears.

 

2.     找出三個主要邏輯錯誤,(多餘三個把錯誤做分類)

 

1.     The decline of the dears can be dates back before the global warming.

2.     Global warming may not be the only plausible reason causing migration change.

3.     Is the global warming so severe that can melt all the sea ice?

 

3.     把邏輯錯誤做邏輯排序:

可照 重要性順序

     推理順序

     出現順序

4.     舉出每個錯誤的反駁例子

 

In the Middle of Writing

起頭:

      一句話重複短文論點兩句話說清楚短文的論據。最後指出短文存在幾個邏輯錯誤。

     

 

   主體:

        分段檢討短文的主要邏輯錯誤。 (建議三段,貴精不貴多)

   

   收尾:

Ø   The argument is invalid because…

Ø   To sufficient the argument,  condition 1  is necessary.

Ø   Condition 2 is also indispensible to rule out the possibility…

Ø   The conclusion is not convincing unless information about ___ is provided. 

 

製作文章模板

 

Argument 的文章開頭結尾要盡快的完成,這樣才能把時間留給中間的抨擊段落。因此,每個人應該寫出自己的固定開頭、結論句式。

 

 

Argument 常見的邏輯錯誤:

 

1.     Survey

Ø   樣本的有效性不足 Response of the sample is not accurate

Ø   抽樣方法的不適當 samples are unrepresentative to reflect the overall attitude in terms of…

Ex: HTC must be popular in Taiwan because whenever I go to department store, their shop is always full of people. 他可能只在某一個時段去,或是只去了幾次。或是都是大特價時去。

Ø   樣本的母群體太小 respondents are not statistically significant in number

2.     他因

 

3.     時間先後不代表因果關係 Causal fallacies

 

4.     其他的解決途徑

5.     局部結論用於整體 hasty generalization

6.     A的情形套用於B  false analogy

缺乏資訊的情況下假定兩者一模一樣

Ex: A city’s crime rate rises after the rise of tax, so B city must be the same if we raise the tax.

7.     營利問題

一個東西很受歡迎,因此我們應該要在A地建立販售據點。這樣的推論沒有考慮到很多因素。如地方性、市場規模、流行退燒、競爭對手、貨物運輸/原料/廠房/技術/勞工成本、風險等等。

8.     認為事物永恆不便

過去是好的、對的,今天不見得一樣。

9.     非此即彼、非黑即白

10.  極端推論

Ex: Tradition and modern cannot coexist, we have to choose between the two.

Ex: Human mind versus Technology

 

 

 

 

 

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